Pilot Training and Outreach
FAA’s Flight Standards collaborates with key safety groups to reach as many pilots as possible with the runway safety message. This collaboration provides training material that addresses current runway safety issues. In FY2013, Flight Standards Service updated appropriate pilot Practical Test Standards with required testing tasks on Runway Incursion avoidance during pilot certification. Pending updates to FAA Order 8900.1 (9/13/07), Flight Standards Information Management System will finalize the Runway Incursion remedial training program and a remedial training syllabus and make it available through FAASafety.gov to assist GA pilots in avoiding Runway Incursions. To support this effort, the FAA provides DPE initial training in Oklahoma City at least two times during the year, training more than 50 DPEs yearly. When finalized, pilots contributing to Runway Incursions would be required, in certain cases, to complete mandatory remedial training with either a DPE for a Category A or B Runway Incursion, or a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) recommended by the FAA Safety Team (FAAST) for a Category C Runway Incursion. Flight Standards has also published a new chapter, Runway Incursion Avoidance, in the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. Additionally, Flight Standards updated Advisory Circular 120-74B Part 121, 125, and 135 Flightcrew Procedures during Taxi Operations (7/30/12) and Advisory Circular 91-73B Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot, Flight School Procedures during Taxi Operations (7/30/12), directed at aircraft with flight crews, single pilots and flight school operators to address procedures and knowledge needed to avoid Runway Incursions.
The FAA “Taxi Test” was produced by the Runway Safety Group and FAAST and viewed on FAASTeamTV. This 60-minute video provides a comprehensive look at runway safety best practices including a review of signs, markings, and lighting and describes scenarios where particular caution must be observed while taxiing. To date, over 12,500 people have viewed this presentation.
AOPA Online Training
The AOPA online runway safety course is a comprehensive training and examination available to both AOPA members and non-members. The course includes:
- An in-depth guide to airport signs, pavement markings and lighting
- Re-creations of several real-life runway incidents and accidents
- Valuable real-world insights from air traffic controllers
- Best practices for communication at towered and nontowered
The course continues to present a multitude of interactive exercises to help pilots hone their surface safety skills. It also provides airmen with a thorough review of every aspect of runway safety. To date, more than 20,000 pilots have completed the course and passed the quiz. An updated course was completed and available in January 2015.
ICAO defines a hot spot as “a location on an aerodrome movement area with a history or potential risk of collision or Runway Incursion, and where heightened attention by pilots and drivers is necessary.” Identifying hot spots makes it easier for users of an airport to plan the safest possible path of movement. Hot spots also call attention to potentially confusing airport areas so pilots can exercise extra care.
Planning is a crucial safety activity for airport users, both pilots and air traffic controllers alike. By making sure that aircraft surface movements are planned and properly coordinated with air traffic control, pilots add another layer of safety to their flight preparations. Proper planning helps avoid confusion by eliminating last-minute questions and building familiarity with known problem areas.
Honolulu International Airport– Hot Spots
Kahului Airport – Hot Spots
Lihue Airport – No Hot Spots
Hilo Airport – No Hot Spots
Kona Airport – No Hot Spots
Runway Incursion Prevention Measures
- Review expected taxi route and restrictions
- Display and use airport diagram – Hot Spots
- Taxi “heads up” – do not perform other duties while taxiing
- Observe “sterile cockpit” rules – only perform taxi duties
- Turn on nav / recognition lights on ground
- Approaching active runway(s)
- Monitor tower frequency
- Read back all hold short clearances
- Entering / Crossing active runway(s) Verify entrance onto active runway
- Visually scan approach and departure areas of runway
- Vocalize “clear right, clear left” Confirm runway / compass heading Turn on lights
- Position and Hold
- Listen for reason to hold
- Contact ATC if hold time is extended
- Traffic Pattern
- Maintain visual scan for conflict traffic
- Watch for unannounced traffic
- Know your location and your destination location
- Monitor weather for reduced visibility
- Watch for other traffic – monitor radio
- Ensure ATC clearance is understood before moving
Three Words to Prevent Incursions:
Known 'Best Practices' for AIRFIELD SAFETY - Pilots
- Encourage use of correct terminology and proper voice
- Eliminate distractions in the operational
- Obtain and use airport diagrams. Use the FAA runway safety website to find airport diagrams for all
- Conduct “Clearing Turns” prior to entering ANY
- Maintain a sterile cockpit when
- Maintain appropriate Taxi
- Encourage pilots to have their “eyes out” when
- Encourage pilots to have a “heads up” policy when
- Attend safety seminars and programs on RUNWAY
- Improve safety by teaching, advocating, stressing and understanding situational awareness.
- Customize RUNWAY SAFETY presentations for targeted audiences such as pilot organizations, safety seminars, airport authorities,
- Cite specific airport RUNWAY SAFETY web
- Distribute RUNWAY SAFETY materials to every aviation
- Package and distribute runway safety materials to: Flight Schools, Flight Safety International, Maintenance Centers, Aircraft Manufacturers,
- Realize that every airport is unique and presents its own set of RUNWAY SAFETY challenges.
- Stay alert; stay
- Declare war on errors; make it everyone’s responsibility.
Everyone must work together diligently to prevent runway incursions.